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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter-13 (Probability)Exercise 13.2

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter-13 (Probability)Exercise 13.2

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths from class 12th Students will get the answers of Chapter-13 (Probability)Exercise 13.2 This chapter will help you to learn the basics and you should expect at least one question in your exam from this chapter.
We have given the answers of all the questions of NCERT Board Mathematics Textbook in very easy language, which will be very easy for the students to understand and remember so that you can pass with good marks in your examination.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter-13 (Probability)Exercise 13.2

Exercise 13.2

Q1. If P(A) 35 = and P (B) 15 = , find P (A ∩ B) if A and B are independent events.

Answer. It is given that P(A)=35 and P(B)=15 A and B are independent events . therefore, 

Q2. Two cards are drawn at random and without replacement from a pack of 52 playing cards. Find the probability that both the cards are black.

Answer. There are 26 black cards in a deck of 52 cards. Let P (A) be the probability of getting a black card in the first draw. P(A)=2652=12 Thus, probability of getting both the cards black = 

Q3. A box of oranges is inspected by examining three randomly selected oranges drawn without replacement. If all the three oranges are good, the box is approved for sale, otherwise, it is rejected. Find the probability that a box containing 15 oranges out of which 12 are good and 3 are bad ones will be approved for sale.

Answer. Let A, B, and C be the respective events that the first, second, and third drawn orange is good. Therefore, probability that first drawn orange is good, P (A) = 1215 The oranges are not replaced. Therefore, probability of getting second orange good, P (B) = 1114 Similarly, probability of getting third orange good, P(C) = 1013 The box is approved for sale, if all the three oranges are good. Thus, probability of getting all the oranges good = 1215×1114×1013=4491 Therefore, the probability that the box is approved for sale is = 

Q4. A fair coin and an unbiased die are tossed. Let A be the event ‘head appears on the coin’ and B be the event ‘3 on the die’. Check whether A and B are independent events or not.

Answer. If a fair coin and an unbiased die are tossed, then the sample space S is given by, S={(H,1),(H,2),(H,3),(H,4),(H,5),(H,6),(T,1),(T,2),(T,3),(T,4),(T,5),(T,6)} Let A: Head appears on the coin A={(H,1),(H,2),(H,3),(H,4),(H,5),(H,6)}P(A)=612=12 B: 3 on die = {(H,3),(T,3)} P(B)=212=16 AB={(H,3)}P(AB)=112P(A)P(B)=12×16=P(AB) Therefore , A and B are independent events.

Q5. A die marked 1, 2, 3 in red and 4, 5, 6 in green is tossed. Let A be the event, ‘the number is even,’ and B be the event, ‘the number is red’. Are A and B independent?

Answer. When a die is thrown, the sample space (S) is S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} Let A: the number is even = {2, 4, 6} P(A)=36=12 B: the number is red = {1, 2, 3} P(B)=36=13 P(AB)=P(AB)=16P(A)P(B)=12×12=1416P(A)P(B)P(AB) Therefore, A and B are not independent.

Q6. Let E and F be events with P(E) 35, P(F) 310 = and P (E ∩ F) = 15. Are E and F independent?

Answer. It is given that P(E)=35,P(F)=310| and P(EF)=P(EF)=15 P(E)P(F)=35310=95015P(E)P(F)P(EF) Therefore , E and F are not independent.

Q7. Given that the events A and B are such that P(A) = 1 2 , P(A ∪ B) = 3 5 and P(B) = p. Find p if they are (i) mutually exclusive (ii) independent.

Answer. It is given that P(A)=12,P(AB)=35, and P(B)=p (i) When A and B are mutually exclusive, AB=Φ P(AB)=0 It is known that , P(AB)=P(A)+P(B)P(AB) 35=12+p0p=3512=110 (ii) When A and B are independent P(AB)=P(A)P(B)=12p it is known that , P(AB)=P(A)+P(B)P(AB) 

Q8. Let A and B be independent events with P(A) = 0.3 and P(B) = 0.4. Find (i) P(A ∩ B) (ii) P(A ∪ B) (iii) P (A|B) (iv) P (B|A)

Answer. It is given that P (A) = 0.3 and P (B) = 0.4 If A and B are independent events, then (i) P(AB)=P(A)P(B)=0.3×0.4=0.12 (ii) it is known that P(AB)=P(A)+P(B)P(AB) P(AB)=0.3+0.40.12=0.58 (iii) it is known that P(A|B)=P(AB)P(B) P(A|B)=0.120.4=0.3 (iv) it is known that , P(B|A)=P(AB)P(B) 

Q9. If A and B are two events such that P(A) = 14 , P (B) = 12 and P(A ∩ B) = 18 , find P (not A and not B).

Answer. It is given that , P(A)=12 and P(AB)=18 P(not on A and not on B) =P(AB) P(not on A and not on B) =P((AB))[AB=(AB)] 

Q10. Events A and B are such that P (A) = 12 , P(B) = 712 and P(not A or not B) = 14. State whether A and B are independent?

Answer. It is given that , P(A)=12,P(B)=712, and P( not A or not B)=14 P(AB)=14P((AB))=141P(AB)=14P(AB)=34.....(1) However , P(A)P(B)=12712=724......(2) Here ,34724 P(AB)P(A)P(B) Therefore, A and B are independent events.

Q11. Given two independent events A and B such that P(A) = 0.3, P(B) = 0.6. Find (i) P(A and B) (ii) P(A and not B) (iii) P(A or B) (iv) P(neither A nor B)

Answer. It is given that P (A) = 0.3 and P (B) = 0.6 Also, A and B are independent events. ( i) P(A and B)=P(A)P(B) P(AB)=0.3×0.6=0.18 (ii) P(A and not B) = P(AB) =P(A)P(AB)=0.30.18=0.12  (iii) P(A or B)=P(AB)=P(A)+P(B)P(AB)=0.3+0.60.18=0.72 (iv) P (neither A nor B) = P(AB) 

Q12. A die is tossed thrice. Find the probability of getting an odd number at least once.

Answer. Probability of getting an odd number in a single throw of a die =36=12 Similarly ,probabilty of the getting an even number = 36=12 Probability of getting an even number three times =12×12×12=18 Therefore, probability of getting an odd number at least once = 1 − Probability of getting an odd number in none of the throws = 1 − Probability of getting an even number thrice 

Q13. Two balls are drawn at random with replacement from a box containing 10 black and 8 red balls. Find the probability that (i) both balls are red. (ii) first ball is black and second is red. (iii) one of them is black and other is red.

Answer. Total number of balls = 18 Number of red balls = 8 Number of black balls = 10 (i) Probability of getting a red ball in the first draw = 818=49 The ball is replaced after the first draw. ∴ Probability of getting a red ball in the second draw = 818=49 Therefore, probability of getting both the balls red = 49×49=1681 (ii) Probability of getting first ball black = 1018=59 The ball is replaced after the first draw. Probability of getting second ball as red = 59×49=2081 Therefore, probability of getting first ball as black and second ball as red (iii) Probability of getting first ball as red = 818=49 The ball is replaced after the first draw. Probability of getting second ball as black = 1018=59 Therefore, probability of getting first ball as black and second ball as red = 49×59=2081 Therefore, probability that one of them is black and other is red = Probability of getting first ball black and second as red + Probability of getting first ball red and second ball black 

Q14. Probability of solving specific problem independently by A and B are 1 2 and 1 3 respectively. If both try to solve the problem independently, find the probability that (i) the problem is solved (ii) exactly one of them solves the problem.

Answer. Probability of solving the problem by A, P (A) = 12 Probability of solving the problem by B, P (B) = 13 Since the problem is solved independently by A and B, P(AB)=P(A)P(B)=12×13=16P(A)=1P(A)=112=12P(B)=1P(B)=113=23 (i) Probability that the problem is solved = P (A ∪ B) =P(A)+P(B)P(AB) =12+1316=46=23 (ii) Probability that exactly one of them solves the problem is given by, 

Q15. One card is drawn at random from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards. In which of the following cases are the events E and F independent ? (i) E : ‘the card drawn is a spade’ F : ‘the card drawn is an ace’ (ii) E : ‘the card drawn is black’ F : ‘the card drawn is a king’ (iii) E : ‘the card drawn is a king or queen’ F : ‘the card drawn is a queen or jack’.

Answer. (i) In a deck of 52 cards, 13 cards are spades and 4 cards are aces. ∴ P(E) = P(the card drawn is a spade) =1352=14 ∴ P(F) = P(the card drawn is an ace) = 452=113 In the deck of cards, only 1 card is an ace of spades. P(EF) = P(the card drawn is spade and an ace) = 152 P(E) × P(F) =