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NCERT Solutions Class 12 maths Chapter-1 (Relation And Functions)Exercise 1.4

NCERT Solutions Class 12 maths Chapter-1 (Relation And Functions)Exercise 1.4

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths from class 12th Students will get the answers of Chapter-1 (Relation And Functions) Exercise 1.4 This chapter will help you to learn the basics and you should expect at least one question in your exam from this chapter.
We have given the answers of all the questions of NCERT Board Mathematics Textbook in very easy language, which will be very easy for the students to understand and remember so that you can pass with good marks in your examination.
Solutions Class 12 maths Chapter-1 (Relation And Functions)Exercise 1.4

Exercise 1.4

Set-1

Question 1: 

Determine whether or not each of the definition of  given below gives a binary operation. In the event that  is not a binary operation, give justification for this.

(i) On Z+, define  by a  b = a – b

Solution: 

If a, b belongs to Z+

a * b = a – b which may not belong to Z+

For eg:  1 – 3 = -2 which doesn’t belongs to Z+ 

Therefore, * is not a Binary Operation on Z+

(ii) On Z+, define * by a * b = ab

Solution: 

If a, b belongs to Z+ 

a * b = ab which belongs to Z+

Therefore, * is Binary Operation on Z+

(iii) On R, define * by a * b = ab²

Solution: 

If a, b belongs to R

a * b = ab which belongs to R

Therefore, * is Binary Operation on R

(iv) On Z+, define * by a * b = |a – b|

Solution: 

If a, b belongs to Z+

a * b = |a – b| which belongs to Z+

 Therefore, * is Binary Operation on Z+

(v) On Z+, define * by a * b = a

Solution: 

If a, b belongs to Z+

a * b = a which belongs to Z+

Therefore, * is Binary Operation on Z+

Question 2: 

For each binary operation * defined below, determine whether * is binary, commutative or associative.

(i) On Z, define a * b = a – b 

Solution:

a) Binary: 

If a, b belongs to Z

a * b = a – b which belongs to Z

Therefore, * is Binary Operation on Z

b) Commutative: 

If a, b belongs to Z, a * b = b * a 

LHS = a * b = a – b

RHS = b * a = b – a

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Commutative

c) Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a – b + c

RHS = (a – b) * c = a – b- c

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

(ii) On Q, define a * b = ab + 1

Solution:

a) Binary:

If a, b belongs to Q, a * b = ab + 1 which belongs to Q

Therefore, * is Binary Operation on Q

b) Commutative: 

If a, b belongs to Q, a * b = b * a 

LHS = a * b = ab + 1

RHS = b * a = ba + 1 = ab + 1

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Commutative

c) Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Q, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * (bc + 1) = abc + a + 1

RHS = (a * b) * c = abc + c + 1

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

(iii) On Q, define a  b = ab/2

Solution:

a) Binary:

If a, b belongs to Q, a * b = ab/2 which belongs to Q

Therefore, * is Binary Operation on Q

b) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Q, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = ab/2

RHS = b * a = ba/2

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Commutative

c) Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Q, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * (bc/2) = (abc)/2

RHS = (a * b) * c = (ab/2) * c = (abc)/2

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Associative

(iv) On Z+, define a * b = 2ab

Solution:

a) Binary:

If a, b belongs to Z+, a * b = 2ab which belongs to Z+

Therefore, * is Binary Operation on Z+

b) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Z+, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = 2ab

RHS = b * a = 2ba = 2ab

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Commutative

c) Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z+, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * 2bc = 2a * 2^(bc)

RHS = (a * b) * c = 2ab * c = 22abc

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

(v) On Z+, define a * b = ab

Solution:

a) Binary:

If a, b belongs to Z+, a * b = ab which belongs to Z+

Therefore, * is Binary Operation on Z+

b) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Z+, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = ab

RHS = b * a = ba

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Commutative

c) Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z+, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * bc = ab^c

RHS = (a * b) * c = ab * c = abc

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

(vi) On R – {– 1}, define a  b = a / (b + 1)

Solution:

a) Binary:

If a, b belongs to R, a * b = a / (b+1) which belongs to R

Therefore, * is Binary Operation on R

b) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to R, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = a / (b + 1)

RHS = b * a = b / (a + 1)

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Commutative

c) Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to A, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * b / (c+1) = a(c+1) / b+c+1

RHS = (a * b) * c = (a / (b+1)) * c = a / (b+1)(c+1)

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

Question 3. 

Consider the binary operation  on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} defined by a  b = min {a, b}. Write the operation table of the operation 

Solution:

^

1

2

3

4

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

2

2

2

2

3

1

2

3

3

3

4

1

2

3

4

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

Question 4: 

Consider a binary operation  on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} given by the following multiplication table.

(Hint: use the following table) 

*

1

2

3

4

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

3

1

1

3

1

1

4

1

2

1

4

1

5

1

1

1

1

5

(i) Compute (2  3)  4 and 2  (3  4)

Solution:

Here, (2 * 3) * 4 = 1 * 4 = 1

2 * (3 * 4) = 2 * 1 = 1

(ii) Is  commutative?

Solution:

The given composition table is symmetrical about the main diagonal of table. Thus, binary operation ‘*’ is commutative.

(iii) Compute (2  3)  (4  5).

Solution:

(2 * 3) * (4 * 5) = 1 * 1 = 1

Question 5: 

Let ′ be the binary operation on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} defined by a ′ b = H.C.F. of a and b. Is the operation ′ same as the operation  defined in Exercise 4 above? Justify your answer.

Solution:

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and a ′ b = HCF of a and b.

*’

1

2

3

4

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

3

1

1

3

1

1

4

1

2

1

4

1

5

1

1

1

1

5

We see that the operation *’ is the same as the operation * in Exercise 4 above.

Question 6: 

Let  be the binary operation on N given by a  b = L.C.M. of a and b. Find

(i) 5  7, 20  16

Solution:

If a, b belongs to N

a * b = LCM of a and b

5 * 7 = 35

20 * 16 = 80

(ii) Is  commutative?

Solution:

If a, b belongs to N

LCM of a * b = ab

LCM of b * a = ba = ab

a*b = b*a

Thus, * binary operation is commutative.

(iii) Is  associative?

Solution:

a * (b * c) = LCM of a, b, c

(a * b) * c = LCM of a, b, c

Since, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

Thus, * binary operation is associative.

(iv) Find the identity of  in N

Solution:

Let ‘e’ is an identity 

a * e = e * a, for a belonging to N

LCM of a * e = a, for a belonging to N

LCM of e * a = a, for a belonging to N

e divides a 

e divides 1

Thus, e = 1

Hence, 1 is an identity element

(v) Which elements of N are invertible for the operation 

Solution:

a * b = b * a = identity element

LCM of a and b = 1

a = b = 1

only ‘1’ is invertible element in N. 

Exercise 1.4

Set-2

Question 7: 

Is  defined on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} by a  b = L.C.M. of a and b a binary operation? Justify your answer. 

Solution:

The operation * on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} is defined as

a * b = L.C.M. of a and b

Let a=3, b=5

3 * 5 = 5 * 3 = L.C.M. of 3 and 5 = 15 which does not belong to the given set

Thus, * is not a Binary Operation.

Question 8: 

Let  be the binary operation on N defined by a  b = H.C.F. of a and b. Is  commutative? Is  associative? Does there exist identity for this binary operation on N?

Solution:

If a, b belongs to N

LHS = a * b = HCF of a and b

RHS = b * a = HCF of b and a

Since LHS = RHS

Therefore, * is Commutative

Now, If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = HCF of a, b and c

RHS = (a – b) * c = HCF of a, b and c

Since, LHS = RHS

Therefore, * is Associative

Now, 1 * a = a * 1 ≠ a

Thus, there doesn’t exist any identity element.

Question 9: 

Let  be a binary operation on the set Q of rational numbers as follows:

(i) a  b = a – b 

(ii) a  b = a2 + b2

(iii) a  b = a + ab 

(iv) a  b = (a – b)2

(v) a  b = ab / 4

(vi) a  b = ab2

Find which of the binary operations are commutative and which are associative. 

Solution:

(i) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Z, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = a – b

RHS = b * a = b – a

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Commutative

Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a – (b – c) = a – b + c

RHS = (a – b) * c = a – b – c

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

(ii) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Z, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = a2 + b2

RHS = b * a = b2 + a2

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Commutative

Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * (b+ c2) = a+ (b2 + c2)2

RHS = (a * b) * c = (a2 + b2) * c = (a2 + b2)2 + c2 

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

(iii) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Z, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = a + ab

RHS = b * a = b + ba

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Commutative

Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * (b + bc) = a + a(b + bc)

RHS = (a * b) * c = (a + ab) * c = a + ab + (a + ab)c

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

(iv) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Z, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = (a – b)2

RHS = b * a = (b – a)2

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Commutative

Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * (b – c)2 = [a – (b – c)2]2 

RHS = (a * b) * c = (a – b)2 * c = [(a – b)2  – c]2

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

(v) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Z, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = ab / 4

RHS = b * a = ba / 4

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Commutative

Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * bc/4 = abc/16

RHS = (a * b) * c = ab/4 * c = abc/16

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Associative

(vi) Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Z, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = ab2

RHS = b * a = ba2

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Commutative

Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * (bc)2 = a(bc2)2

RHS = (a * b) * c = (ab2) * c = ab2c2

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

Question 10: 

Find which of the operations given above has identity

Solution:

An element e  Q will be the identity element for the operation * if

a * e = a = e * a, for a  Q

for (v) a * b = ab/4

Let e be an identity element 

a * e = a = e * a

LHS : ae/4 = a

   => e = 4

RHS : ea/4 = a

  => e = 4

LHS = RHS

Thus, Identity element exists

Other operations doesn’t satisfy the required conditions. 

Hence, other operations doesn’t have identity.

Question 11: 

Let A = N × N and  be the binary operation on A defined by :

(a, b)  (c, d) = (a + c, b + d)

Show that  is commutative and associative. Find the identity element for  on A, if any. 

Solution:

Given (a, b) * (c, d) = (a+c, b+d) on A

Let (a, b), (c, d), (e,f) be 3 pairs  A

Commutative :

LHS = (a, b) * (c, d) = (a+c, b+d)

RHS = (c, d) * (a, b) = (c+a, d+b) = (a+c, b+d)

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Commutative

Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = (a, b) * [(c, d) * (e, f)] = (a, b) * (c+e, d+f) = (a+c+e, b+d+f)

RHS = [(a, b) * (c, d)] * (e, f) = (a+c, b+d) * (e, f) = (a+c+e, b+d+f)  

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Associative

Existence of Identity element:

For a, e  A, a * e = a

(a, b) * (e, e) = (a, b)

(a+e, b+e) = (a, b)

a + e = a    

=> e = 0

b + e = b

=> e = 0

As 0 is not a part of set of natural numbers. So, identity function does not exist.

Question 12:

 State whether the following statements are true or false. Justify.

(i) For an arbitrary binary operation  on a set N, a  a = a  a  N.

(ii) If  is a commutative binary operation on N, then a  (b  c) = (c  b)  a

Solution:

(i) Let * be an operation on N, defined as:

a * b =  a + b  a, b  N

Let us consider b = a = 6, we have:

6 * 6 = 6 + 6 = 12 ≠ 6

Therefore, this statement is false. 

(ii) Since, * is commutative

LHS = a  (b  c) = a * (c * b) = (c * b) * a = RHS

Therefore, this statement is true.

Question 13: 

Consider a binary operation  on N defined as a  b = a3+ b3. Choose the correct answer.

(A) Is  both associative and commutative?

(B) Is  commutative but not associative?

(C) Is  associative but not commutative?

(D) Is  neither commutative nor associative? 

Solution:

On N, * is defined as a * b = a3 + b3

Commutative:

If a, b belongs to Z, a * b = b * a

LHS = a * b = a3 + b3

RHS = b * a = b3 + a3

Since, LHS is equal to RHS

Therefore, * is Commutative

Associative:

If a, b, c belongs to Z, a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c

LHS = a * (b * c) = a * (b3 + c3) = a3 + (b3 + c3)3

RHS = (a * b) * c = (a3 + b3) * c = (a3 + b3)3 + c3

Since, LHS is not equal to RHS

Therefore, * is not Associative

Thus, Option (B) is correct.

 Chapter-1 (Relation And Functions)

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